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Catholics live all over the world through missions, diaspora, and conversions.Since the 20th century the majority reside in the southern hemisphere due to secularisation in Europe, and increased persecution in the Middle East.
Its central administration, the Holy See, is in the Vatican City, an enclave within Rome, Italy.
Ultimately leading the entire Catholic Church is the Bishop of Rome, commonly called the pope, whose jurisdiction is called the Holy See.
In parallel to the diocesan structure are a variety of religious institutes that function autonomously, often subject only to the authority of the pope, though sometimes subject to the local bishop.
Most religious institutes only have male or female members but some have both.
Additionally, lay members aid many liturgical functions during worship services. The Catholic Church holds that Christ instituted the papacy upon giving the keys of Heaven to Saint Peter.
For advice and assistance in governing, the pope may turn to the College of Cardinals.