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The standard for the kilogram is a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at the International Bureau of Weights and Standards in Sèvres, France.Most of the units in the International System are derived units, that is units defined in terms of base units and supplementary units.Probably the most important theorem involving prime numbers is the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, which says that all integers greater than 1 can be expressed as a product of prime numbers up to reordering of the factors.So, for example, 54 can be written as which is a unique factorization assuming that we list the factors in decreasing order.That is, the gas is so hot, and the atoms are slamming around so hard, that some of the electrons are given enough energy to (temporarily) escape their host atoms.The most important effect of this is that a plasma gains some electrical properties that a non-ionized gas doesn’t have; it becomes conductive and it responds to electrical and magnetic fields.If you have to work with prime numbers day in and day out though, simplifying theorems just a little bit (by choosing your definitions carefully) may well be worth it.
The candle picture is from here, and the Jacob’s ladder picture is from here.
The standards for the base units, except for the kilogram, are defined by unchanging and reproducible physical occurences.
For example, the meter is defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second.
Mathematician: Note that when we say that a number is “prime”, all that we are doing is applying a definition that was devised by mathematicians.
A prime number is generally defined to be any positive number that has exactly two distinct positive integer divisors (the divisors being 1 and the number itself).
In fact, this is a great test for whether or not something is a plasma.